A CLINICALLY PROVEN NATURAL NUTRIENT
Naturally-aged skin is usually smooth, pale, and finely wrinkled, whereas photo-aged skin shows coarse, deep wrinkles and dyspigmentation. Depletion of the Ozone layer leads to an increase in UV-B rays reaching the earth, increasing the photo-aging effect on unprotected skin.
Studies investigating the effects of PS intake on the skin have included studies in animals and in humans.
PS was associated with increased collagen levels in skin
PS affects the skin in at least two ways that are different, but complementary, to one another.
The first effect identified in cell and animal studies relates to the way in which PS affects levels of internal collagen production. Collagen is a structural protein in skin. Reduction in collagen formation results in skin wrinkling and drying. The second effect identified relates to the way in which PS effects the production of another protein, known as MMP1, which is an enzyme responsible for collagen breakdown.
The two combined effects of synthesis or formation of collagen and on breakdown of collagen, leads to an overall result of increased collagen formation. Indeed, it was shown in humans that intake of PS results in the reduced appearance of wrinkles and increased skin moisture (Choi, H. et al. Journal of the Korean Society for Applied Biological Chemistry 56, 227-235 (2013).
When collagen levels in skin are reduced, or when the collagen is degraded by internal or external factors, such as UV light, the skin becomes damaged and wrinkled, spots may form and skin moisture and elasticity are reduced. These skin changes are symptoms of “photodamage”. PS has been found to increase collagen levels in skin and protect the skin from the damaging effects of UV light. (Lee, S.-H. et al.. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology 115, 783-790, (2013))
PS reduced the extent of wrinkle formation in animals
As we age our skin loses collagen and moisture, leading to the formation of wrinkles. The effects of PS on skin wrinkles were tested in a study conducted on hairless mice (Choi, H. et al. Journal of the Korean Society for Applied Biological Chemistry 56, 227-235 (2013)). The skin of the hairless mouse is usually quite smooth, but exposure to UV light leads to the formation of wrinkles. Ingestion of PS by mice led to protection from UV-induced skin wrinkling, and even to improvement in skin texture compared to the skin of mice who did not consume PS.
PS has been associated with a reduction in the appearance of wrinkles in human skin
The ability of PS to reduce the appearance of wrinkles has been tested in humans. In a double-blind, placebo- controlled study, participants received 300mg/day of PS for 12 weeks. The skin around the eyes was evaluated by a dermatologist, and the appearance of wrinkling of the skin was found to be reduced in subjects who consumed PS (Choi, H. et al. Journal of the Korean Society for Applied Biological Chemistry 56, 227-235 (2013)).
PS significantly increases skin moisture
Aged skin often has reduced moisture, affecting the elasticity of the skin and leading to wrinkle formation. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study, people aged 40-60 years took 300 mg/day of supplemental PS for 12 weeks. Their skin moisture was found to more than double in comparison to those taking the placebo (Choi, H. et al. Journal of the Korean Society for Applied Biological Chemistry 56, 227-235 (2013)).
The minimal dose of PS shown to be effective for the improvement of skin was 300 mg/day. A Clinical study of PS intake shows effects after just 12 weeks of consumption.