A CLINICALLY PROVEN NATURAL NUTRIENT
A CLINICALLY PROVEN NATURAL NUTRIENT
Exercise is beneficial for both body and mind. Physical activity can be used to control weight, reduce the risk of cardiovascular and other metabolic diseases, strengthen muscles and bones, and improve mental health and mood.
There are, however, exercise-related phenomena that can make physical training less satisfying, and thus less effective. Muscles often become sore after training, and a few days can pass until muscle fatigue allows for additional training. Recovery from exercise can also hold someone back from optimizing their training. There also is the “ceiling effect”, which is well known to those who train regularly: there’s a point where no matter how much you train, performance doesn’t seem to improve (also sometimes refer to as “hitting the wall”).
All these effects reduce the enjoyment of training, prevent optimization of a training regimen, and may even deter people from training altogether.
While PS is known mostly for its effects on cognitive function, there are other effects that have been identified in humans. Several clinical studies examining the effects of PS on exercise showed that intake of PS enhances the exercise experience by improving several different outcomes. These outcomes have included significant improvements to endurance (which can boost peak performance) (Kingsley, M. I. et al. Medicine and science in sports and exercise 38, 64-71 ) and recovery (Starks, M. A. et al. J Int Soc Sports Nutr 5, 11, (2008)), as well as reduced muscle soreness (Kingsley, M. I. et al. Medicine and science in sports and exercise 37, 1300-1306 (2005)).
PS effect on our muscles
Increased endurance means a person can keep training for longer periods of time. For example, those who run or cycle can keep going further and for longer time, improving their results. In a double blind, placebo-controlled clinical study conducted using a model of cycling, PS was found to increase the endurance of the cyclists by 30% (Kingsley, M. I. et al. Medicine and science in sports and exercise 38, 64-71 (2006)).
Our body is influenced by many factors, some of them related to hormones found in our body, especially in the blood. Cortisol, a hormone known best for its relationship to stress, causes muscle wasting when present in high levels. Exercise leads to an increase in cortisol, which may reduce muscle mass buildup. Another hormone involved is testosterone, which is one of the most important hormones in the process of muscle building. In a clinical study, PS was found to reduce the increase in the levels of cortisol and simultaneously increase the levels of testosterone, leading to a more optimal hormonal balance for those who train (Starks, M. A. et al. J Int Soc Sports Nutr 5, 11, (2008)).
PS improves recovery after exercise
The ratio between the level of testosterone and cortisol in blood is used as a marker for recovery after exercise. PS was found to significantly improve this ratio, indicating that those who consume PS have better recovery capabilities after exercise compared to those who do not (Starks, M. A. et al. J Int Soc Sports Nutr 5, 11, (2008)).
PS reduces perceived muscle soreness
Muscle soreness often comes from a damage to the muscles caused by the strain they endure during training. One method of assessing this damage is by measuring blood levels of creatine kinase (CK), an enzyme released into the blood stream when the muscle is damaged. In a study done in an American academic institute, ingestion of PS was found to lover blood levels of CK, indicating reduced muscle damage. A dose of 300mg per day was sufficient to have a significant effect (Fernholz, K. M. Master of Science thesis, St. Cloud State University, (1997)). In another double blind, placebo-controlled study, people taking PS reported that their muscle soreness was reduced (Kingsley, M. I. et al. Medicine and science in sports and exercise 37, 1300-1306 (2005)). While the participants not taking PS still felt muscle soreness 48 hours after the training session, those who took PS were fully recovered within the same time frame, suggesting PS may enhance training routines.
PS is suitable for female athletes
Most clinical studies in the world of sport nutrition were done in male athletes. Needs of female athletes, often different than those of males, are often un-addressed. Recently, a clinical study tested a formula, containing 400mg per day of PS, on a group of female athletes doing aerobic sports such as running and cycling. Results of the study suggest that ingestion of the PS contain formula by female aerobic athletes may lead to a significant improvement of running time in a 3-mile course, and to an increase distance covered in a fixed time (DiSilvestro, R. A. et al. J Int Soc Sports Nutr 14, 42).
The minimal dose of PS shown to be effective for athletes is 300 mg/day. Clinical studies with PS show effects as early as after 10 days of daily consumption. The recommended regimen is to take PS together with protein supplements after completion of an exercise session, although intake of PS prior to exercise may also be considered. PS intake is beneficial for individuals involved in all types of exercise regimens, with clinical studies showing positive effects from PS taken following sports such as models of cycling (or spinning), running, soccer, weightlifting, and more.