About 60% of brain dry weight are lipids



What is ps?

Phosphatidylserine (PS) is a type of lipid and a member of the phospholipid family, a group of fatty molecules that are the main building blocks of cell membranes. As such, PS is a natural component and an essential building block of human tissues, especially in neuronal tissues and the brain, where it is concentrated up to 6 times relative to other tissues. It is known to be crucial for the proper structure, as well as to optimal function, of our body tissues. While some fats, such as trans fats, may be harmful for human health, others have potential health benefits. Among the fats linked to beneficial effects on human health, the best known are omega-3 fatty acids. PS intake has been linked to potential human health benefits. Such benefits include improvement in cognitive functioning, skin texture and exercise performance.



PS in our diet

Phosphatidylserine (PS) is a natural part of human diet throughout our lifespan. PS can be found in breast milk, thus babies receive it naturally from their mothers. As we grow, other sources of PS are available to us – milk, rice and certain beans – though the level of PS in these sources is rather low. Higher levels of PS can be found in specific types of fish and in internal organs, but the average Western diet does not include these foods or include it a reduced manner.
The human diet has been greatly influenced over the past 3-4 decades by processes such as industrialization, globalization, urbanization, detachment from traditional diets, and adoption of the Western diet. These processes led to a significant reduction in the consumption of certain foods and food ingredients, including PS. Data shows that prior to 1980, people consumed an average of 250 mg of PS per day from various sources, but today average intake has dropped by almost half, estimated at 130 mg per day. For some populations, such as vegans, vegetarians and children, consumption level of PS is even lower, estimated at only 50 mg per day (Hamm m. Nutritional-scientific statement on the change of nutritive provision with phosphatidylserine. 2002)



PS in our body

Phosphatidylserine is a natural building block of our tissues, found in every cell membrane. The cell membrane is built from a double layer of phospholipids, separating the inside of the cell from the outside. Unlike other phospholipids, PS is found only in the inner layer, where it contributes to a number of mechanisms essential to cell function and survival.
PS has been shown to play a crucial role in the structure and function of the brain, and to be an essential component in muscle regeneration after training. This demonstrates the vital role of PS as an important building block of our bodies.



How it works

Unlike other phospholipids, PS carries a negative electric charge. This electric charge is responsible for many of the mechanisms attributed to PS. For example, release of neurotransmitters in the brain, activation of neuron survival mechanisms, and activation of memory and learning mechanisms (also referred to as “synaptic plasticity”).
Our body also has PS receptors. These receptors are proteins that serve as “on/off” switches in the cell. When in the “off” mode, the proteins are dormant. But when a specific molecule attaches to the receptor (like a key inserted into a keyhole) it is switched “on”, activating various mechanisms in the cell. For example, the ability of PS to regenerate damaged muscles is an action triggered by the binding of PS to specific receptors, resulting in activation of the regeneration process (Hochreiter-Hufford AE et al. Nature. 2013;497:263-267).
PS has been shown to regulate secretion and function of various hormones. For example, cortisol is a hormone that increases in the blood as a result of stress. PS is known to reduce cortisol levels in people under mental or physical stress.

About 60% of brain dry weight are lipids